How misinformation spreads: researchers look at ways of making crisis information on social media more accurate

Published: Friday, 13 March 2020 09:41

In an Internet-driven world, social media has become the go-to source of all kinds of information. This is especially relevant in crisis situations, when warnings and risk-related information are actively circulated on social media. But currently, there is no way of determining the accuracy of the information. This has sometimes resulted in the spread of misinformation.

In a Twitter-focused study published in Japanese Psychological Research, scientists at Osaka University, found a pattern through which information spreads on social media which could help prevent the spread of fake news.

Conventional models of information diffusion fail to adequately explain the exact transmission route on social media, as they do not take into account individual user characteristics. Therefore, to study these characteristics, the scientists first selected 10 highly retweeted (more than 50 times) risk-related tweets. Based on Slovic's definition of risk perception, a cognitive model used to assess how people perceive certain risks, they assessed whether users perceived these risks as ‘dreadful’ (related to large-scale events with potentially dire consequences) or ‘unknown’ (when the impact of the event is unknown). They then analyzed the personal networks of the users who tweeted/retweeted particular tweets -specifically the number of followers, followees, and mutual connections.

They found that users with fewer connections tend to spread information arbitrarily, possibly owing to a lack of experience or awareness. But, users with a high number of mutual connections were more emotionally driven - they were more likely to spread dreadful information, possibly intending to share their reactions with the public.

The study showed the existence of an information diffusion mechanism on social media that cannot be explained by conventional theoretical models and that risk perception has a significant impact on the 'retweetability' of tweets.

By identifying the user network characteristics on Twitter, this study potentially offers a solution to prevent fake news dissemination. These characteristics can be leveraged to maximize the spread of accurate information, ensuring that appropriate measures are taken.

The article, ‘Spread of risk information through microblogs: Twitter users with more mutual connections relay news that is more dreadful’ was published in Japanese Psychological Research at DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jpr.12272